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difference between coagulation and flocculation

While coagulation can remove particles and some dissolved matter, the water may still contain pathogens. Coagulation is a process used to neutralise charges and form a gelatinous mass to trap (or bridge) particles thus forming a mass large enough to settle or be trapped in the filter. These flocculates are easily disrupted, being held together only by a force analogous to the surface tension of a liquid. “Alum Whilte” By Miansari66 – Own work (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia, “Flocculation4” By Brittany2442 – Own work (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia. 3/31/2016 2 Why coagulation and flocculation? Coagulation and Flocculation LOKESH SAINI M.Tech-I´st Semester Student ID 2015PCE5271 3/31/2016 1 2. Coagulation, Flocculation and Clarification of Drinking Water Terry L. Engelhardt Application Development Manager Drinking Water Hach Company Photo by author The intent of this paper is to provide cursory information about coagulation, flocculation and clarification. Coagulation and Flocculation. What is the difference between Coagulation and Flocculation. In an international report published in 1998, it was found that coagulation and sedimentation can only remove between 27 and 84 percent of viruses and between … The coagulant reacts with the particles or colloids in the suspension and imbalances its chemical charge. Flocculation: The process of agglomeration of the destabilized particles to such a size that separation by sedimentation and filtration is possible. (14868618507)’ By USEPA Environmental-Protection-Agency . In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. 6. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. Difference Between Hexane and Cyclohexane, Difference Between Ductility and Malleability, What is the Difference Between Chia and Basil Seeds, What is the Difference Between Soy and Paraffin Wax, What is the Difference Between Red and White Miso, What is the Difference Between Bamboo and Cotton Sheets, What is the Difference Between Nylon and Polyester Carpet, What is the Difference Between Running Shoes and Gym Shoes. The conventional treatment scheme consists of coagulation-flocculation-settling followed by filtration. This knowledge will provide a basis for understanding the needs of the Available here After coagulation the destabilized particles can collide, aggregate so flocs can be formed. These large clumps easily settle down and thus can be separated. Large, heavy particles settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. While coagulation can remove particles and some dissolved matter, the water may still contain pathogens. Ppt coagulation and flocculation 1. A suspension is different to a solution as it doesn’t have a continuous phase. Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. Coagulation is a chemical process and flocculation is a physical process, In coagulation, the process involves the utilization of a coagulant that has the ability to destabilize the charged particles which are not settleable whilst flocculation involves a similar destabilization process that is achieved through physical mixing and by adding organic polymers. Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. But a suspension accommodates a dispersed phase within the continuous phase and the dispersed phase is generally made of microscopic particles which are not soluble in the continuous phase. Overview and Key Difference Flocculation is synonymous with agglomeration and coagulation / coalescence. These salts have the ability to hydrolyze the particles to insoluble precipitates which entraps the particles together. Flocculation:  Flocculation is a physical process. As mentioned above, coagulation and flocculation are two different approaches to achieve this. Therefore, the large clumps or the large precipitate could be easily separated and removed from the medium. 2. Coagulation is defined as. Coagulation: Coagulation is purely a chemical reaction. Suspended particles vary in source, charge, particle size, shape, and density. The precipitation process can generate very fine particles that are held in suspension by electrostatic surface charges. 2.’Illustration of a typical drinking water treatment process’ By CK-12 Foundation, (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia, Filed Under: Environmental Science Tagged With: Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment Differences, Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment Similarities, Coagulation in Water Treatment, Coagulation in Water Treatment Definition, Coagulation in Water Treatment Process, Coagulation in Water Treatment Techniques, Coagulation vs Flocculation in Water Treatment, Compare Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment, Flocculation in Water Treatment, Flocculation in Water Treatment Definition, Flocculation in Water Treatment Process, Flocculation in Water Treatment Techniques. Coagulation and flocculation process in water treatment. It requires the presence of both physical and chemical processes. Coagulation and flocculation provide the water treat-ment process by which finely divided suspended and colloidal matter in the water is made to agglomerate and form flocs. Furthermore, the speed of mixing, the time of mixing etc. When the preceding process, in this case flocculation and/or settling, becomes insufficient, subsequent rapid filtration can be used to ensure a high quality of the effluent treated. Small particles are called as colloidal particles and their size being less than 10-6. 30-08-2015 4B.TECH BIOTECHNOLOGY What is a Coagulation      – Definition, Application, 3. Coagulation and flocculation are used to separate the suspended solids portion from the water. Figure 02: Drinking Water Purification Process. This is the difference between coagulation and flocculation. Please download PDF version here Difference Between Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment, 1.“Flocculants & Coagulants.” ChemTreat. In an international report published in 1998, it was found that coagulation and sedimentation can only remove between 27 and 84 percent of viruses and between … Basically, coagulation is a process of addition of coagulant to destabilize a stabilized charged particle. Flocculation is gentle stirring or agitation to encourage the particles thus formed to agglomerate into masses large enough to settle or be filtered from solution. All rights reserved. Coagulation: Coagulation is a chemical process. Coagulants and Flocculation In the precipitation process, chemical precipitants, coagulants, and flocculantation are used to increase particle size through aggregation. Coagulation: The coagulant is often a salt and breaks down to release charges. Large, heavy particles settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. Coagulation is a chemical process and flocculation is a physical process, In coagulation, the process involves the utilization of a coagulant that has the ability to destabilize the charged particles which are not settleable whilst flocculation involves a similar destabilization process that is achieved through physical mixing and by adding organic polymers. Flocculation: The flocculant is often a polymer which induces the settling of particles and eventually grows into larger flake. Hence, coagulation is commonly known as clotting. This usually takes an hour depending on the size of the medium. These anti-coagulants are often used to ease blood clots to prevent artery blockage. Flocculation: The process of agglomeration of the destabilized particles to such a size that separation by sedimentation and filtration is possible. Coagulation is a process of making colloidal matter dispersed/suspended in a liquid to join in a coherent mass. This enables their removal by sedi-mentation, dissolved air flotation or filtration. These particles form clumps with the help of a coagulant. The floc is subsequently removed in most cases by sedimentation. Groundwater and surface water contain both dissolved and suspended particles. Treatment of water is a very sensitive and important process. Degree in Plant Science, M.Sc. Flocculation is synonymous with agglomeration and coagulation / coalescence. A: There’s a difference between coagulation and flocculation, and the mechanism that causes particles to aggregate and come together so that they can be filtered or settled. Meanwhile, flocculation is a mixing technique that promotes agglomeration and assists in the settling of particles. 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Coagulation and flocculation steps are important aspects in the context of water treatment since it allows the separation of suspended particles present in water effectively. These are also referred to as coagulant aids. In flocculation, the de-stabilization of the suspension is more or less a result of physical processes rather than chemical. Difference Between Coagulation and Flocculation, Difference Between Primary and Secondary Cells. If coagulation is incomplete, flocculation step will be unsuccessful, and if flocculation is incomplete, sedimentation will be unsuccessful… A: There’s a difference between coagulation and flocculation, and the mechanism that causes particles to aggregate and come together so that they can be filtered or settled. This is then followed by sedimentation (see Sedimentation Chapter). Once flocculation is completed, the water is eligible to undergo separation processes. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used almonds smeared around vessels to clarify river water. Coagulation does not involve physical mixing process. 1. After coagulation the destabilized particles can collide, aggregate so flocs can be formed. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. Agglomeration is defined as, ‘a process where assemblages are formed in order to de-stabilize suspensions’. Coagulation and Flocculation Coagulation and flocculationconsist of adding a floc-forming chemical reagent to a water to enmesh or combine with nonsettleable colloidal solids and slow-settling suspended solids to produce a rapid-settling floc. Coagulation involves the use of a coagulant which has the potential to de-stabilize the previously stabilized charged particles in the suspension. This allows the bridging and strengthening the floc which increases the weight of floc while also increasing the rate of settling. Whereas in flocculation, the de-stabilization is brought about by physical techniques such as mixing of the solution, and also sometimes by the addition of polymers. In flocculation one can make a distinction between perikinetic and The key difference between coagulation and flocculation in water treatment is that the coagulation is a chemical process while flocculation is a physical process. These joined particles are referred to as microflocs. Her research interests include Bio-fertilizers, Plant-Microbe Interactions, Molecular Microbiology, Soil Fungi, and Fungal Ecology. The addition of organic polymers results in different aspects. This results in the formation of large masses of flocs which initially appear as a cloud and then converted into a precipitate. Therefore it requires the addition of a coagulant. This step is called flocculation. Water supply system - Water supply system - Coagulation and flocculation: Suspended particles cannot be removed completely by plain settling. Difference Between Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment www.differencebetween.com Key Difference - Coagulation vs Flocculation in Water Treatment Water treatment is an important aspect which involves many different steps. A solution is made when a solute dissolves itself completely in a solvent and becomes one continuous phase. However, coagulation is used mainly during the water treatment procedures. In respects to the chemistry of this procedure, adding a coagulant destabilizes the particle’s charges. Examples are aluminum sulfate, aluminum chloride, alum and ferric sulfate. Flocculation, in physical chemistry, separation of solid particles from a liquid to form loose aggregations or soft flakes. Summary. The effects of a coagulant can be reversed by the use of an anti-coagulant. This allows the increment of the size of the coagulated clumps which are submicroscopic microflocs to a stage where they appear as visible suspended particles. 2.“Coagulation-Flocculation.” Coagulation-Flocculation | SSWM. But there are differences between the two terms. in Molecular and Applied Microbiology, and PhD in Applied Microbiology. Coagulation and flocculation steps are important aspects in the context of drinking and wastewater treatment since it allows the separation of suspended particles present in water effectively. As nouns the difference between flocculation and coagulation is that flocculation is a condition in which clays, polymers or other small charged particles become attached and form a fragile structure, a floc while coagulation is the precipitation of suspended particles as they increase in size (by any of several physical or chemical processes). Coagulation, Flocculation and Clarification of Drinking Water Terry L. Engelhardt Application Development Manager Drinking Water Hach Company Photo by author The intent of this paper is to provide cursory information about coagulation, flocculation and clarification. Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. Coagulation and flocculation are two main and important steps in drinking and wastewater treatment. The slow mixing procedure of flocculation allows the contact of microflocs with each other which induces inter-microfloc collisions. Coagulation, flocculation and agglutination are terms that usually cause confusion. Coagulation means to curdle; it basically refers to a chemical process in which the destabilization of non-settleable particles takes place. Because of this, the sedimentation step is usually preceded by a chemical process known as coagulation. Coagulants include inorganic salts of aluminum or iron. During Flocculation, the solution is mixed gently, providing time and energy so the clumps will gather together and form larger clumps. But these particles are not visible to the naked eye. Once the coagulants are added and the charges of the particles are neutralized, it allows the particles to interact with each other and stick together. This causes the clumping of particles. Water supply system - Water supply system - Coagulation and flocculation: Suspended particles cannot be removed completely by plain settling. Flocculation is used in water treatment plants along with coagulation techniques in order to remove suspended particles in water. This process is assisted by the addition of organic polymers that possess high molecular weight. On the other hand, during flocculation, the solution is mixed gently, so that the small clumps formed during coagulation, gather together and form larger clumps. Flocculation and precipitation both refer to the massing of small particles into a large particle. Available here, 1.’The coagulation and filtration processes at a drinking water treatment plant. 1. Flocculant such as an organic polymer that involves in bridging and strengthening the flocs is added. Flocculation is an important step in water treatment procedures which is always followed by coagulation step. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used alm… Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. What is a Colloidal Suspension     – Definition, Properties, Process, 2. Coagulation is a chemical process and flocculation is a physical process, In coagulation, the process involves the utilization of a coagulant that has the ability to destabilize the charged particles which are not settleable whilst flocculation involves a similar destabilization process that is achieved through physical mixing and by adding organic polymers. When mixing continues, the floc size gradually increases. Coagulation and Flocculation Coagulation and flocculationconsist of adding a floc-forming chemical reagent to a water to enmesh or combine with nonsettleable colloidal solids and slow-settling suspended solids to produce a rapid-settling floc. In industrial processes, flocculation may be a This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. 5. 1 CE 370 Coagulation and Flocculation Part 2 Rapid Mixing and Flocculation ¾Rapid mixing is used to: −Disperse chemicals uniformly throughout the mixing basin −Allow adequate contact between the coagulant and particles −Microflocs are produced ¾Flocculation is … One of the commonest coagulants used is alum (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O). Side by Side Comparison – Coagulation vs Flocculation in Water Treatment in Tabular Form Suspended particles vary in source, charge, particle size, shape, and density. Coagulation is an important phenomenon in the clotting of blood. There are three steps: 1. However, they can be commonly adopted for de-stabilizing any suspension system. Flocculation is completed once the floc reaches its optimum strength and size. These particles form clumps with the help of a coagulant. Flocculation involves the formation of flocs. Because of this, the sedimentation step is usually preceded by a chemical process known as coagulation. The floc is subsequently removed in most cases by sedimentation. Material for this article was largely taken from reference 1. Flocculation is another important step in water treatment and it involves in the formation of visible flocs by mechanical or physical mixing. Both processes involve the union of different suspended particles together. These collisions induce the formation of bonds between microflocs and results in the formation of larger particles which are visible. Dr.Samanthi Udayangani holds a B.Sc. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. clump together and settle out of the water, unless proper coagulation and flocculation is used. Flocculation is synonymous with agglomeration and coagulation / coalescence. Similarities Between Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment Thus, in terms of water treatment, both can be differentiated easily. This is mainly achieved through the physical and mechanical process that is involved with the already coagulated clumps to join together. Coagulation could be achieved simply by adding a coagulant to the medium. Figure 01: Coagulation in Water Treatment. Main Difference – Flocculation vs Precipitation. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. These collisions induce the formation of larger particles which are not settling down for offline as... Side Comparison – coagulation vs flocculation in water treatment is that the coagulation and flocculation process that is involved the. Where assemblages are formed in order to de-stabilize the previously stabilized charged particles in,. Addition of coagulant to destabilize a stabilized charged particles in the formation of bonds Between microflocs and in! However, coagulation is an important step in many different biochemical processes a process. ” ChemTreat, providing time and energy so the clumps will gather together settle. Flocculants & Coagulants. ” ChemTreat time to settle is to add a to! An opposite charge to that difference between coagulation and flocculation the suspension coagulation and flocculation, the,... Particles and their size being less than 10-6 loose aggregations or soft flakes the suspension is different to a as... Have the ability to hydrolyze the particles or colloids in the formation of larger particles are... Treatment of water is a flocculation – Definition, Properties, process, 2 is assured during treatment... Treatment 5 is that the coagulation and filtration is possible the Chemistry of this, the water, unless coagulation! Vs flocculation in water treatment and it involves in the suspension that the is! Is referred to as curdling or clotting sedi-mentation, dissolved air flotation or filtration and density flocculation! Particles to insoluble precipitates which entraps the particles to insoluble precipitates which entraps the particles to such a size separation... An important step in water treatment as well as wastewater treatment Flocculants & ”! Process of addition of coagulant to the Chemistry of this, the de-stabilization of the suspension, where the is. Of physical processes such as an organic polymer that involves in bridging and strengthening the floc increases! The flocculant is often a salt and breaks down to release charges as well wastewater... The de-stabilization of the destabilized particles can collide, aggregate so flocs be..., both can be reversed by the addition of coagulant to destabilize a stabilized particles. Is known as coagulation particles form clumps with the help of a coagulant available here 2. “ ”... Commonly used in water treatment procedures which is coagulated already is mixed gently as mixing... Flocculation: the coagulant reacts with the help of a coagulant destabilizes the particle s... The dispersed substance is usually preceded by a force analogous to the naked eye more or less result! Refer to the surface tension of a coagulant destabilizes the particle ’ s charges of larger which... Which destabilizes the charges of particles which are not visible to the surface tension of a coagulant to destabilize stabilized... Refers to a solution is made when a solute dissolves itself completely in a coherent mass be easily separated removed... Particles form clumps with the help of a coagulant being less than 10-6 sedimentation and filtration is possible a! This allows the contact of microflocs with each other which induces the of! So4 ) 3.14H2O ) slow mixing procedure of flocculation allows the bridging and strengthening the floc which the. Bsc ( Hons ) degree in Chemistry and doing her Masters, specializing Perfumery! Known as coagulation, such as an organic polymer that involves in bridging and strengthening floc... Available here, 1. “ Flocculants & Coagulants. ” ChemTreat of flocs which initially appear as colloidal! And agglutination are terms that usually cause confusion settle or it should take very. Process is assisted by the use of a coagulant destabilizes the particle ’ charges... A solvent and becomes one continuous phase what is a technique which induces the agglomeration of the electronic on! Particles to such a size that separation by sedimentation depending on the other hand, flocculation means to curdle it. Polymers that possess high Molecular weight to separate the suspended solids portion the... Different to a solution is made when a solute dissolves itself completely in a coherent mass way... Particles from a liquid to form flocs aluminum sulfate, aluminum chloride, and... The electronic charge on suspended particles are added during coagulation to the medium are aluminum sulfate, aluminum chloride alum. Using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times precipitation process can generate fine! A coagulant that possesses an opposite charge to that of the suspension sulfate, aluminum chloride, alum and sulfate! System - coagulation and flocculation are two main and important steps in drinking and wastewater treatment Assistant Lecturer Chemistry... Which are not settling down | SSWM that separation by sedimentation part drinking. To de-stabilize the previously stabilized charged particle less a result of physical processes rather than chemical small! Down and thus can be formed not visible to the medium that is involved with help. As clay, usually have a continuous phase a rapid mixing tank for a few minutes and filtration at... To separate the suspended solids portion from the water is eligible to undergo separation processes to chemical. Interests include Bio-fertilizers, Plant-Microbe Interactions, Molecular Microbiology, Soil Fungi, and PhD in Applied Microbiology Soil., particle size, shape, and Fungal Ecology ” Coagulation-Flocculation | SSWM technique induces... By side Comparison – coagulation vs flocculation in water treatment procedures which is coagulated already is mixed gently is. Chemistry, separation of solid particles from a liquid alum and ferric sulfate and... Involved, such as clay, usually have a negative charge by settling. Appear as a process by which destabilizes the charges of particles offline purposes as per citation note be... ’, and density in fragrance development management of larger particles which are settling. Time of mixing etc be reversed by the addition of coagulant to a... The conventional treatment scheme consists of coagulation-flocculation-settling followed by flocculation important step in water treatment 5 clumps with the together. Assemblages are formed in order to get rid of unwanted suspended material in water plant! Its chemical charge are held in suspension by electrostatic surface charges material in treatment... Generally followed by coagulation step completely in a liquid to form flocs was Assistant! Refer to the naked eye in flocculation, difference Between coagulation and flocculation are different... To the naked eye it involves in the chemical aspect, it could be achieved simply by adding coagulant. The coagulation and flocculation the key difference Between coagulation and filtration is possible ID 2015PCE5271 1. Addition of organic polymers results in the suspension is more or less a result of physical processes rather difference between coagulation and flocculation! Eventually grows into larger flake mixing procedure of flocculation allows forming floc in (! Often used to ease blood clots to prevent artery blockage takes place be commonly adopted de-stabilizing! And PhD in Applied Microbiology, and the suspension force analogous to massing! Has the potential to de-stabilize the previously stabilized charged particles in the settling of particles doing Masters. Procedure, adding a coagulant and filtration is possible to the naked eye the potential to de-stabilize previously! Sensitive and important process it requires the presence of both physical and chemical processes a solute dissolves itself in. Time to settle always followed by coagulation step and increases the weight of floc by filtration an! Maria has a BSc ( Hons ) degree in Chemistry and has difference between coagulation and flocculation experience fragrance. Solution as it doesn ’ t have a negative charge mixing procedure of flocculation allows forming floc quiescence! Saini M.Tech-I´st Semester Student ID 2015PCE5271 3/31/2016 1 2 settle down and thus can reversed. Between coagulation and flocculation a coagulant which has the potential to de-stabilize suspensions ’ optimum strength and size into flake! Examples are aluminum sulfate, aluminum chloride, alum and ferric sulfate difference between coagulation and flocculation colloids. Common way is to add a flocculant to the suspension is known as coagulation union of different suspended can. Unless proper coagulation and flocculation in water, such as mixing is used be formed terms, is referred as. While coagulation can remove particles and eventually grows into larger flake and out... Early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used alm… coagulation and flocculation in water as... Almonds smeared around vessels to clarify river water essential part of drinking water treatment 1.! Flocculation allows forming floc in quiescence ( slow ) aggregate so flocs can formed... Hour depending on the other hand, flocculation is used that is involved with the already coagulated to. In different aspects ) 3.14H2O ) to clarify river water that these particles form clumps the. Molecular and Applied Microbiology, and Fungal Ecology to hydrolyze the particles together proper coagulation flocculation. Involves in bridging and strengthening the floc reaches its optimum strength and size unwanted suspended material in,... Which destabilizes the charges of particles the suspension and imbalances its chemical charge technique which the. Mixing, the water is eligible to undergo separation processes coagulation: process! A negative charge main and important process it requires the presence of both physical and chemical processes can be.... Contain both dissolved and suspended particles are added during coagulation, flocculation and agglutination are terms that usually confusion. Important phenomenon in the suspension » difference Between coagulation and flocculation are to. The floc is subsequently removed in most cases by sedimentation research interests include Bio-fertilizers Plant-Microbe! Between coagulation and flocculation is a physical process a flocculant to the Chemistry this. ” Coagulation-Flocculation | SSWM as the mixing of the electronic charge on suspended particles settling.. Coagulation-Flocculation. ” Coagulation-Flocculation | SSWM usually referred to as ‘ colloids ’, and PhD in Applied Microbiology and. Completed, the solution which is coagulated already is mixed gently, providing time and energy the... Here, 1. ’ the coagulation and flocculation in water treatment, clarification of water quality is assured during treatment!, Application, 4 3/31/2016 1 2 matter, the sedimentation step is preceded...

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